Linux Media Center

freevo

One of my pet projects is a media center computer. I have since upgraded to a new system, but I will leave the following for posterity. See my new config at the System76 Wiki.

The goal is transparent technology, something that is integrated into the living space, not something that looks like a tangled mess of wires or a dilapidated computer lab. ;)

The system is a Linux DVR / PVR / HTPC, scheduled tv recorder, audio/video file and DVD playback unit w/ infrared remote control, FM radio receiver, wireless access point and Internet gateway that firewalls the internal network, file server, RSS viewer, weather display and a dedicated peer-to-peer client host.

hardware platform

  • VA Linux dual P500 w/ 256MB RAM
  • Matrox Millenium G400 MAX 32MB AGP
  • Creative Soundblaster Live
  • CenDyne Pioneer DVR-105
  • WesternDigital 120GB Ultra/ATA100 hard drive
  • NetGear MA311 802.11b wireless ethernet card
  • Intel eepro ethernet card
  • 3Com 3c59x ethernet card
  • Hauppauge WinTV PCI video capture card
  • The operating systems of choice is DebianLinux.

    digital subscriber line

    I've been happy with Verizon DSL, which is 1.5/384 PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE).

    The connection was up and running a week after I called to subscribe, having to wait on the modem to be shipped. When the package first arrived, I had to use the Verizon installation CD-ROM on a Windows machine to initially set up my account with their flash-bassed installer.

    # apt-get install pppoe
    

    /etc/ppp/peers/dsl-provider:

    pty "/usr/sbin/pppoe -I eth0 -T 80 -m 1452"
    noipdefault
    defaultroute
    lcp-echo-interval 20
    lcp-echo-failure 3
    connect /bin/true
    noauth
    persist
    mtu 1492
    default-asyncmap
    hide-password
    mru 1492
    noaccomp
    noccp
    nobsdcomp
    nodeflate
    nopcomp
    novj
    novjccomp
    usepeerdns
    user INSERTUSERNAME
    

    /etc/ppp/pap-secrets:

    USERNAMEHERE   *       PASSWORDHERE
    

    wireless access point

    The Host AP wireless access point driver works perfectly with a NetGear MA311 card. I am bridging one of the wired ethernet cards with the wireless one. Currently using hostap compiled from the source tarball, but it is also available as a package.

    # apt-get install bridge-utils
    

    Enable ethernet bridging under your kernel networking options.

    /etc/network/interfaces:

    auto br0
    iface br0 inet static
            bridge_ports wlan0 eth1
            address 192.168.1.1
            netmask 255.255.255.0
            network 192.168.1.0
            broadcast 192.168.1.255
            pre-up iwconfig wlan0 essid MYBASE
            pre-up iwconfig wlan0 channel 2
            pre-up iwconfig wlan0 mode Master
            pre-up iwconfig wlan0 key s:MYKEY
            pre-up prism2_param wlan0 ap_bridge_packets 0
            pre-up prism2_param wlan0 beacon_int 1000
    

    Flashing your Intersil Prism chipset card to a newer version may help with performance and configurability. I was able to upgrade my Netgear MA311 card to v1.7.4:

    # prism2_srec -v -f wlan0 pk010101.hex  sf010704.hex
    

    dynamic host configuration protocol

    DHCP is enabled on br0.

    # apt-get install dhcp
    

    /etc/dhcpd.conf:

    subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
            option routers                  192.168.1.1;
            option subnet-mask              255.255.255.0;
            option domain-name-servers      151.201.0.39, 151.197.0.39;
            option time-offset              -18000; # Eastern Standard Time
            default-lease-time 600;
            max-lease-time 7200;
    
            host laptop {
                    hardware ethernet 02:05:2F:6D:95:G7;
                    fixed-address 192.168.1.2;
            }
    
            range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.254;
    }
    

    If you get a "No subnet declaration for wlan0 (0.0.0.0)" in syslog when you start the dhcp server, then make sure to specify the interface.

    /etc/default/dhcp:

    INTERFACES="br0"
    

    iptables firewall

    Configuring a firewall is easy with the firestarter package, or others.

    # apt-get install firestarter
    

    Then run firestarter and step through the wizard.

    wireless clients

    On wireless Debian Linux clients, run the following:

    # iwconfig eth1 key s:YOURKEYHERE
    # dhclient eth1
    

    On wireless Windows clients, under the 'Network Connctions' 'Control Panel', open your 'Wireless Network Connection', select your 'Wireless Networks' and enter the network key.

    dynamic domain name service

    DynDNS.org provides free dynamic DNS updates, so that every time your PPP connection reconnects, you can still have a working hostname. I use the ipcheck package to auto-update on connect.

    # apt-get install ipcheck
    # mkdir /var/lib/ipcheck
    # ipcheck --makedat  -d /var/lib/ipcheck -i ppp0 username password hostname.dyndns.org
    

    /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns:

    #!/bin/sh
    /usr/sbin/ipcheck -d /var/lib/ipcheck -l -i ppp0 username password hostname.dyndns.org
    
    # chmod +x /etc/ppp/ip-up.d/dyndns
    

    tv-out

    The Matrox Millenium G400 video card works well under Linux, with high quality tv-out. Subtitles and fine detail are very easy to view.

    console framebuffer for tv-out

    enable I2C support, including bit-banger, in the kernel config

    enable matrox framebuffer support

    enable mtrr

    # apt-get install matrox-tools fbset
    

    enable tv-out on second head:

    # matroxset -f /dev/fb1 -m 0 # this disconnects fb1 from outputs 
    # matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -m 3 # this connects fb0 to both outputs 
    # matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -o 1 2 # this sets fb0 to NTSC output 
    # fbset -fb /dev/fb0 -xres 800 -yres 600 # set to 800x600 resolution
    

    XFree86 on framebuffer and tv-out

    /etc/X11/XF86Config-4:

    <snip>
    
    Load  "v4l"             # Video4Linux
    
    <snip>
    
    Driver      "mga" 
    Option      "hw cursor" "off" 
    Option "UseFBDev" "on" 
    
    <snip>
    
    DefaultDepth     16      
    DefaultFbBPP     16 
    SubSection "Display"   
            Depth     16    
            Modes    "800x600" 
    EndSubSection 
    
    <snip>
    

    fine tune with fbset to center display, start with left edge, incrementing up:

    # fbset -left 10
    
    then:
    # fbset -right 10
    
    and etc to get something like:
    # fbset -fb /dev/fb0 -left 40 -right 26 -lower 32 -upper 80 -hslen 20
    

    once tweaked to fill tv screen without a squirrelly monitor, get a modeline to insert into the /etc/X11/XFree86-4 config under the Monitor section:

    # fbset -x
    

    tweak contrast, saturation, hue and brightness:

    # matrox 0x1e 0xd0
    # #matrox 0x20 0xff 
    # #matrox 0x22 0xff 
    

    and place setup commands in your init script /etc/init.d/g400:

    #!/bin/sh
    
    # reset framebuffer
    matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -m 0 
    matroxset -f /dev/fb1 -m 0 
    matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -m 1 
    matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -o 0 128 
    fbset -fb /dev/fb0 640x480-60 
    
    # set up 800x600 w/ NTSC tv-out
    matroxset -f /dev/fb1 -m 0
    matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -m 3
    matroxset -f /dev/fb0 -o 1 2
    fbset -fb /dev/fb0 -xres 800 -yres 600
    
    # chmod +x /etc/init.d/g400
    # cd /etc/rc2.d
    # ln -s ../init.d/g400 S99g400
    

    Matrox binary XFree86 driver for dual-head

    This displays xvideo playback only on the CRT and not TV out in clone mode, but is good for dual-head monitors! The above framebuffer setup is what should be used for tv-out.

    download Matrox binary drivers mga.o & mga_hal.o:

    copy them to /usr/X11R6/lib/modules/drivers/

    # apt-get install mgapdesk
    
    startx
    and run
    mgapdesk
    to config, and then restart X

    dvd burner

    The main use of the burner will be for system backups and to archive large video files. An IDE drive must be used through SCSI emulation for the burner software to work.

    enable ide-scsi emulation, ide-cdrom, scsi-cdrom and scsi-generic support in the kernel as modules. My burner is the second ide drive, hdb, which becomes sr0 after scsi emulation.

    add ide-scsi to /etc/modules

    create /etc/modutils/burner:

    options ide-cd ignore=hdb
    pre-install sg modprobe ide-scsi
    pre-install sr_mod modprobe ide-scsi
    pre-install ide-scsi modprobe ide-cd
    
    # update-modules
    # apt-get install dvd+rw-tools cdrecord mkisofs cdrtools-doc
    # reboot
    

    check that your through-put to/from your burner is fast enough for the process, enable dma on IDE drives:

    # hdparm -u1 -c3 -d1 /dev/hdb
    

    create and iso image and burn a data CD-R:

    # mkisofs -J -joliet-long -r -o cd_image.iso -V MyCD /some/files/ /more/files/
    # cdrecord -sao -overburn dev=0,0,0 speed=8 driveropts=burnfree -vvvv cd_image.iso
    

    download and install the latest cdrecord-ProDVD in /usr/local/bin/:

    make an iso image and burn directly to a data DVD+R/DVD-R:

    # growisofs -speed=2 -Z /dev/sr0 -r -J -joliet-long -V MyDVD /some/files/ 
    # growisofs -speed=2 -M /dev/sr0 -r -J -joliet-long /more/files/
    

    firmware updates and flashing utility for Linux:

    # ./DVRFlash -vf /dev/sg0 R5100004.133 R5100104.133
    

    DVD recordable media support info for Pioneer drives

    DVD format info and statistics

    NIST Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs

    digital video recorder

    Freevo does the job, handling media playback with Mplayer & Xine. It loads at boot with rungetty.

    An apt source for freevo and mplayer is now available. Add these lines to your /etc/apt/sources.list:

    deb http://freevo.sourceforge.net/debian unstable main
    deb ftp://ftp.nerim.net/debian-marillat/ unstable main
    

    Then run:

    # apt-get update
    # apt-get install mplayer-686 mencoder-686 mplayer-fonts w32codecs libdvdcss2 xine-ui
    # apt-get install freevo unclutter rungetty
    

    Freevo can start up automatically by using rungetty. This can also be done on redhat with the "open" package. In runlevel 2, I remove the getty login from tty1 and replace it with and automatic rungetty login of the freevo user:

    /etc/inittab:

    <snip>
    1:345:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty1
    2:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty2
    3:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty3
    4:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4
    5:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5
    6:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty6
    r1:2:respawn:/sbin/rungetty tty1 --autologin freevo
    <snip>
    

    When freevo logs in on tty1, X is started and freevo launches.

    ~freevo/.bash_profile:

    <snip>
    if [ "$TERM" = "linux" -a `tty` = "/dev/tty1" ]; then
            /usr/bin/X11/startx ; exit
    fi
    

    ~freevo/.xsession:

    #!/bin/sh
    
    # turn off screen blanking
    /usr/bin/X11/xset s off
    /usr/bin/X11/xset -dpms
    
    # hide mouse cursor and set background
    /usr/bin/unclutter -root -idle 1 &
    /usr/bin/X11/xsetroot -solid "#999999" &
    
    # allow local user access to display
    /usr/bin/X11/xhost +local:
    
    # adjust size and centering of framebuffer
    #/usr/sbin/fbset -fb /dev/fb0 -left 42 -right 26 -lower 32 -upper 80 -hslen 40
    
    # adjust contrast, saturation, hue and brightness of the g400
    /usr/sbin/matrox 0x1e 0xd0
    #/usr/sbin/matrox 0x20 0xff
    #/usr/sbin/matrox 0x22 0xff
    
    # showtime
    #xterm
    #esd -as 1 -tcp -public &
    freevo
    

    remote control

    LIRC and an Irman infrared receiver provides remote control capabilities.

    # apt-get install lirc
    

    set your hardware type and device in /etc/lirc/hardware.conf:

    <snip>
    DRIVER="irman"
    DEVICE="/dev/ttyS0"
    <snip>
    

    make a config file for lirc:

    # cd /etc/lirc
    # /etc/init.d/lirc stop
    # irrecord -H irman -d /dev/ttyS0 lircd.conf
    # /etc/init.d/lirc start
    

    you can then see the commands when pushing remote buttons:

    # irw
    

    make an lirc config in /etc/freevo/lircrc mapping buttons to freevo commands, Eg:

    begin
        prog = freevo
        button = vsh_up
        config = CH+
        repeat = 2
    end
    

    you can then see the mapped freevo commands when you press buttons:

    # ircat --config=/etc/freevo/lircrc freevo
    

    needed commands:
    LEFT, RIGHT, UP, DOWN, SELECT, ENTER, EXIT, DISPLAY, REC, REW, PLAY, FFWD, PAUSE, STOP, CH+, CH-, VOL+, VOL-

    content encoding

    grip, a GUI for lame, is the best for ripping CDs to MP3.

    dvd:rip, a GUI for transcode, is the best for converting your DVDs to AVIs.

    peer to peer

    I like to download files with bittorrent, but it can flood an adsl connection, choking outgoing connections. Shaping the bandwidth to around 70-80% of maximum will lower latency and fixes this. The Wonder Shaper is an easy to use traffic shapping script.

    # wondershaper ppp0 1228 307
    

    Traffic shapping reduced a test round trip time during network load from an average of 972.611 ms to under 88.570 ms.

    Using trickle as a normal user is another option to do bandwidth shaping.

    $ btdownloadcurses --max_upload_rate 36 --max_uploads 4 whatever.torrent
    

    Original BitTorrent or TheSHAD0W's Experimental BitTorrent Client - BitTornado

    mldonkey multi-network peer2peer client

    AnimeFansubs